Mathematics and International Relationships in Print (Journals and Books) and Correspondence – Cirm Trento – 1-5/12/2014

Matematica e internazionalità nella stampa e nelle corrispondenze (xvi-xx sec.) Mathematics and International Relationships in Print (Journals and Books) and Correspondence

CIRM Povo (Trento) 1-5 December 2014

Organisateurs : Silvia Roero, Hélène Gispert, Philippe Nabonnand

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A complex transition: German general and review journals to specialized journals in the early 19th century
Tom ARCHIBALD (Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada)

The general and review journals, very numerous in the later years of the 19thcentury, give evidence of much general interest in mathematics. The passage to research journals, notably that of Crelle, attempted to retain the audience by a variety of strategies. In this paper we examine the characteristics of mathematics in the general journals, the volumes that are reviewed, and the strategies of Crelle and others to interest broader publics in more advanced and difficult subjects.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Tom Archibald

Matematica e internazionalità nel carteggio fra Guccia e Cremona e nei Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico
Cinzia CERRONI (Dip. Matematica Univ. Palermo)

Il carteggio fra Giovan Battista Guccia (1855-1914) e Luigi Cremona (1830-1903) è costituito da 59 lettere, che coprono un arco cronologico che va dal 1878 al 1900. In particolare le lettere di Guccia a Cremona sono 45, di cui 44 sono conservate presso l’Istituto Mazziniano di Genova, mentre le lettere di Cremona a Guccia sono 14 e sono conservate presso l’archivio del Circolo Matematico di Palermo, insieme alla lettera di Guccia a Cremona del 28 luglio 1881. Giovan Battista Guccia si laureò a Roma nel 1880, sotto la guida di Luigi Cremona. Nel 1889, in seguito a concorso, fu nominato professore straordinario di Geometria superiore all’Università di Palermo e nel 1894 fu nominato ordinario. Nel 1884, fondò, con personale contributo di mezzi e di lavoro, il Circolo Matematico di Palermo, i cui Rendiconti divennero, qualche decennio dopo, una delle più importanti riviste matematiche internazionali. Egli ne fu, fino alla morte, il direttore e l’animatore. Alla prematura morte lasciò una cinquantina di lavori geometrici, nell’indirizzo strettamente cremoniano. Dall’esame del carteggio si evince la presenza di alcuni temi sopra gli altri: la descrizione della carriera scientifica e dei collegamenti internazionali di Guccia con relazioni dettagliate sui viaggi all’estero; i riferimenti al Circolo Matematico di Palermo, sin dalla prima fase della sua costituzione, e le acute valutazioni dell’ambito matematico europeo compiute da Guccia per garantire lo sviluppo internazionale del Circolo e dei Rendiconti. Bibliografia CERRONI C., Il Carteggio Cremona-Guccia (1878-1900), Milano, Mimesis 2013 (a cura di A. Brigaglia). BRIGAGLIA A., MASOTTO G., Il Circolo Matematico di Palermo, Palermo, Ed. Dedalo, 1982.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Cinzia Cerroni 1

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Cinzia Cerroni 2

Des corps d’ingénieurs nationaux pris dans la circulation internationale des savoirs : l’exemple des ponts et chaussées français au XIXe siècle
 Konstantinos CHATZIS (IFSTTAR, LATTS-Ecole des Ponts ParisTech)

Alimenté, après 1794, par d’anciens polytechniciens rompus aux sciences et aux mathématiques, le corps des ponts et chaussées, à l’instar des différents corps d’ingénieurs en France qui recrutent à la sortie de l’Ecole polytechnique, a su progressivement mettre en place une série de mécanismes de production, de stockage et d’analyse, de dissémination et d’utilisation des connaissances et des savoir faire nécessaires pour réaliser ses missions au XIXe siècle. Une bonne partie de ces connaissances et savoir faire sont d’origine étrangère, captés d’abord avant d’être appropriés par les membres du corps grâce à une série de moyens de « management de la connaissance et de l’information », pour parler comme l’historien P. Burke. Cette communication présentera et discutera certain de ces moyens développés par le corps des ponts à partir du début du XIXe siècle : cours de langues étrangères, l’italien à partir de 1806, auquel s’ajoutent l’anglais et l’allemand quelques années plus tard ; constitution d’une bibliothèque dont une partie significative est composée d’ouvrages et de revues étrangers; organisation de missions scientifiques à l’étranger sur une base systématique (ainsi les meilleurs élèves de chaque promotion gagnaient-ils un voyage d’études à l’étranger) ; création d’une revue de corps, les Annales des ponts et chaussées, fondée en 1831, qui contient plusieurs publications faisant état de ce qui se passe et se fait à l’étranger dans des domaines qui intéressent le corps.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Kostas Chatzis

La teoria dei gruppi continui nella corrispondenza di Elie Cartan. Intendo fornire un’analisi delle corrispondenze di Cartan in particolare con J. A. Schouten, H. Weyl e U. Amaldi.
Alberto COGLIATI (Dip. Matematica Univ. Milano)

Si Intende fornire un’analisi delle corrispondenze di Cartan, in particolare con J. A. Schouten, H. Weyl e U. Amaldi.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Alberto Cogliati – Cartan

Les journaux pour enseignants et étudiants : usages locaux et circulation internationale des mathématiques (1870-1914)
Caroline EHRHARDT (Université de Saint Denis)

Après 1870, les journaux de mathématiques destinés à un public étudiant et enseignants se multiplient : en France, plusieurs d’entre eux sont créés, qui reprennent la ligne éditoriale initiale des Nouvelles Annales de mathématiques (qui existent quant à elles depuis 1842) ; en Belgique, la revue Mathesis voit le jour ; en Grande Bretagne, ce sont les Mathematical questions from the Educationnal Times, le Messenger of Mathematics et la Mathematical Gazette qui occupent cette fonction ; en Italie, on trouve le Giornale di matematiche, ou encore le Periodico di Matematica per l’insegnamento secondario. Ces revues étant liées à l’enseignement, elles sont façonnées par le contexte éducatif de leur pays de publication. On peut ainsi y lire des corrections de concours de dimension nationale (Polytechnique, Cambridge, professorat), ou encore des annonces de manuels destinés à des enseignements particuliers, voire de cours spécifiques. Les contributeurs et les rédacteurs appartiennent, le plus souvent, au monde de l’enseignement du pays dans lequel ces revues sont publiées. De ce point de vue, ces journaux apparaissent comme conçus à une échelle locale, et destinés à un usage tout aussi local. Pourtant, on trouve aussi au fil des pages des manifestations d’une circulation internationale des mathématiques publiées dans ces journaux. Cette circulation est présente à l’intérieur du groupe que forment ces revues, par les références à des articles publiés à l’étranger par une autre revue pour étudiants et enseignants, par la publications des mêmes questions, voire la réédition de réponses parues ailleurs. Elle est également présente au travers de la volonté des rédacteurs de faire connaître à leurs lecteurs certaines avancées de la recherche internationale. Cette communication sera consacrée à l’articulation de ces deux échelles, locale et internationale, dans les revues destinées aux étudiants et aux enseignants : comment dialoguent-elles au travers des frontières ? Quels sont les objets mathématiques qui circulent, et quels sont les effets de cette circulation ? Peut-on parler d’une communauté internationale autour de ces revues ?

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Caroline Ehrhardt 1

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Caroline Ehrhardt 2

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Caroline Ehrhardt 3

Il Giornale di Matematica di Battaglini e le relazioni internazionali
Maria Rosaria ENEA  (Dip. Matematica, Univ. Basilicata)

Il Giornale di Matematiche was the first mathematics’ journal founded in an Italian university  after the Unification in 1860. It was born on the initiative of  a professors’ group from the University of  Naples, to provide Italian universities with a journal that could make the developments of European mathematics known, especially to young people. According to the promoters of the initiative, this scientific journal had to lead young scholars to the difficult path of mathematical research.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Maria Rosaria Enea 1

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Maria Rosaria Enea 2

Cardano’s « Opus perfectum »: an encyclopedia to extend algebra beyond abacus environments towards a transnational dimension
Veronica GAVAGNA (Dip. Matematica Univ. Salerno)

Even though Leonardo Pisano’s Liber Abaci was written in Latin, the Italian tradition of practical mathematics and algebra – started from the beginning of 13th century and developed till the 16th century – has been mostly a vernacular and local tradition. The invention of the movable type printing technology did not change this aspect: the best appreciated and spread abacus treatises, that is Pacioli’Summa, Borghi’s Libro de abacho – to mention only the most famous – were still in vernacular and mirrored an everyday life geographically limited. Girolamo Cardano’s Practica arithmetice (1539) represented a breakpoint in this trend. Cardano decided to write in Latin his first mathematical work, a kind of abacus treatise, to enlarge his public to the intellectual environments and to make his Practica one of the main means for spreading the practical mathematics throughout Europe. It was not an easy operation, as it presented – just to take an example – the difficulty of translating some particular expression of the abacus vulgar lexicon in latin terms. Nevertheless it was a successfull operation: Viète, Stiffel, Nunez and others often mentioned Cardano’s Practica. But Cardano’s project was much more ambitious. His following goal was to publish an encyclopedia of practical arithmetics in fifteen volumes, called Opus arithmetice perfectum. He was not able to complete his project, but we have some volumes (Ars magna, Opus novum de proportionibus) and fragments still extant that shed a light on this work, aimed to go beyond the abacus environments so to give a transnational dimension to the practical arithmetics. This encyclopedia, inspired to the architecture of Euclid’s Elements, was to be a reference point in the whole mathematical community. This was the reason why, for example, Cardano adopted a completely different approach in respect with the Practica, abandoning the terminology of the abacus for a lexis more representative of the purity of Latin. My talk is focused in describing the features and the fortune of Cardano’s editorial project, interpreted as an attempt to transform a mainly local phenomenon into a tool shared by a wider community to stimulate the development of mathematics. Bibliography G. CARDANO, De libris propriis. The editions of 1544, 1550, 1557, 1562 with supplementary material, edited by I. MACLEAN, Milano, Angeli 2004. V. GAVAGNA, Medieval Heritage and New Perspectives in Cardano’s Practica arithmetice, Bollettino di Storia delle Scienze Matematiche, (30) 2010, pp. 61-8. V. GAVAGNA, L’Ars magna arithmeticae nel corpus matematico di Cardano, in S.Rommevaux, M.Spiesser e M.Massa Estève (eds.), Pluralité de l’algèbre à la Renaissance, Paris, H.Champion Éd., 2012, pp. 237-268. M. TAMBORINI, Per una storia dell’Opus Arithmeticae Perfectum, in M.L. BALDI, G. CANZIANI (eds.) Cardano e la tradizione dei saperi, Milano, F. Angeli 2003, pp.157-189.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Veronica Gavagna

The first thirty years of the Italian Mathematical Union, through its Bollettino: between nationalism and internationalization.
Livia GIACARDI (Dip. Matematica Univ. Torino)

The talk will present a first attempt to reconstruct the history of the first thirty years of the Unione Matematica Italiana (UMI), situating it into the scientific, political and international context. The timeframe spans from 1922, the year of its founding, to 1952, when the IMU was refounded in Rome and Enrico Bompiani, president of the UMI starting in the year, became secretary. The principal sources of the research are the “Bollettino della Unione Matematica Italiana”, the unpublished documents and letters (Pincherle, Bortolotti, Volterra, Castelnuovo, Mussolini, Picard, Koenig, Mittag-Leffler, Courant, and others) conserved in the Archives of the UMI and of the Accademia dei Lincei as well as archives in other countries, the proceedings of the national UMI congresses and those of the International Congresses of Mathematicians (ICMs). The aspects to be explored are:

● the difficulties of the beginnings of the UMI, related to problems of national politics (the birth of Fascism) and global politics (the after-effects of World War I), and to the relationships with other associations of mathematicians already in existence (Circolo Matematico di Palermo, Mathesis);

● the difficult path towards internationality, whose most important step was the organisation of the 1928 ICM in Bologna, during which Pincherle played the dual role of president of the UMI as well as of the IMU. Pincherle, extending the invitation to all nations without distinction, and thus welcoming also the mathematicians of the Central Powers, including Germany, succeeded in breaking down the “political barriers”, thus achieving that internationality of science which has been compromised in 1920 during the ICM in Strasbourg by the exclusion of the scientists of the Central Powers from the international cooperation. Pincherle’s negotiations are well documented in the rich correspondence held in the UMI Archive.

● The role played by relationships with Fascism, especially following the emanation of the racial laws, which seem to have negatively influenced the opportunities for international relations that appear to have increased after 1948;

● The broadening of the range of action of the UMI, which, starting in 1939, began to occupy itself with questions pertaining to mathematics teaching. References Giacardi, L. 2008 Timeline in The first century of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (1908-2008): http://www.icmihistory.unito.it/timeline.php Guerraggio, A., Nastasi, P. 2005, Matematica in camicia nera, Mondadori, Milano, 2005. Lehto, O. 1998, Mathematics Without Borders. A History of the International Mathematical Union, Springer, New York. Pucci, C. 1986, L’Unione Matematica Italiana dal 1922 al 1944: documenti e riflessioni, in Symposia mathematica (ed. INDAM), vol. 27, pp. 187-212.

Cirm Trento 2014 – Livia Giacardi

Offres éditoriales en mathématique au 19e siècle et cadres nationaux: France, Italie, Grande Bretagne. Premières approches.
Hélène GISPERT (Université de Paris sud — GHDSO)

Nous voudrions discuter ici l’opérationnalité et la pertinence de la prise en compte du cadre national dans l’étude des journaux de mathématiques au 19e siècle. Après un premier travail réalisé sur les journaux français, c¹est à dire les journaux mathématiques créés et édités en France au cours du XIXe siècle, cherchant à préciser les dynamiques de création des journaux et de segmentation des publics et leurs liens au cadre national français, c¹est à dire l¹histoire institutionnelle, politique, culturelle du pays, nous voudrions tenter une mise en perspective avec les cadres italiens et britanniques.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Hélène Gispert

The international partnerships on mathematical instruction at the age of Totalitarianism
Erika LUCIANO (Dip. Matematica Univ. Torino)

As is well known, an articulated process of ideological indoctrination, known as the fascistization of school and research, was put into place in Italy during the dictatorship (1922-1945). This process went hand in hand with a focused strategy of closure and boycotting of international scientific trends and experiences, known as the policy of cultural autarchy. In particular, after 1936 scientific exchanges of teachers and students were systematically discouraged; famous scholars such as G. Fubini and G. Colonnetti, were refused passports to attend international congresses or to teach abroad as visiting professors, and even foreign books, journals and teaching materials were subjected to severe controls. On the contrary, favoured intellectuals of the regime, such as F. Severi, E. Bompiani, L. Fantappiè, were often invited as lecturers in France, German, Japan, Brazil, Scandinavia, and took the opportunity to celebrate the superiority of Latin genius and the success of the cultural lines promoted by the fascist dictatorship. Analysing the correspondences and the publications of this period, and thanks to sources preserved in some Italian archives (the Historical Archives of the Turin University and Polytechnic, the archive of FESE [Fond Européen de Secours aux Etudiants], the archive of Del.As.Em, [Delegazione per l’assistenza agli emigranti ebrei], the network of correspondences among V. Volterra, G. Castelnuovo and F. Enriques, …), in this talk we will illustrate: – the repercussions of cultural autarchy on the evolution of Italian mathematics; – the strategies adopted by some scholars (G. Castelnuovo, F. Enriques, V. Volterra, A. Terracini, F.G. Tricomi, E. Persico, F. Severi, E. Bompiani, L. Fantappié, …), in order to mitigate the effects of this forced scientific isolation and – the tension – under a totalitarian regime – between the physical control over individuals and objects, and the free supranational circulation of scientific knowledge and ideas. References GOODSTEIN J., BABBITT D., A fresh look at Francesco Severi, Notices of the AMS, 59, n. 8, pp. 1064-1075. GUERRAGGIO A., NASTASI P. (eds.), Italian mathematics between the two world wars, Basel, Birkhäuser, 2005. LUCIANO E., Matematica e ideologia. Momenti di storia dell’insegnamento nel ventennio fascista, Atti dell’Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali, 172, 2013-14, pp. 235-276. NASTASI P. TAZZIOLI R., I matematici italiani e l’internazionalismo scientifico (1914-1924), La Matematica nella Società e nella Cultura, Rivista dell’Unione Matematica Italiana, s. 1, VI, 2013, pp. 355-405. PARSHALL K.H., RICE A.C. (eds.), Mathematics Unbound: the Evolution of an International Mathematical Research Community 1800-1945, Providence. Rhode Island, AMS, 2002. SIEGMUND-SCHULTZE R., Rockefeller and the Internationalization of Mathematics between the Two World Wars, Basel, Birkhäuser, 2001. SIGNORI E., Una «peregrinatio academica» in età contemporanea. Gli studenti ebrei stranieri nelle università italiane tra le due guerre, Annali di storia delle università italiane, 4, 2000, pp. 139-162. VOIGT K., Il rifugio precario. Gli esuli in Italia dal 1933 al 1945, Firenze, La Nuova Italia, 1989.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Erika Luciano1

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Erika Luciano2

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Erika Luciano3

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Erika Luciano4

Le riviste di matematica dell’Università di Pisa e le influenze internazionali
Iolanda NAGLIATI (Univ. Ferrara)

The University of Pisa has a long tradition in the field of scientific journals, starting from the last decades in XVII century, that set it in a peculiar position between the academic institutions of the time. The first period is under the name of Giornale dei letterati, published from 1771 to 1839, with some changes in the title and long interruptions, followed by some series of the Giornale Toscano and collected papers concerning scientific topics, then from 1846 by the Annali delle università toscane, until 1925, and finally from 1871 by the Annali della Scuola Normale. The Giornale took place as the expression of the board of professors, directed by the superintendent Angelo Fabroni. This close relationship with the university was an advantage for the magazine, kept out from the control of religious authorities, but at the same time a limit, with regard to the level of non-uniform scientific contributions of teachers. Fabroni had a large network of relationship with both individuals (d’Alembert, Condorcet, J.D. Cassini, Lalande, Waring, Priestley) and institutions in Europe (Royal Society, Académie des Sciences). The journal become one of the most influential literary review of the time, and also from the mathematical point of view it has interesting elements, most of all for the presence of excerpts from the main foreign journals and reviews of works recently published. The attention paid to the developments of sciences in the European framework was a constant of the Giornale dei letterati, that ended its life after the first Congress of Italian scientists, held in Pisa in 1839. A different purpose inspired the Annali delle università toscane, whose aim was to give to the professors a place to publish not only research articles, but also lessons, critical editions, treatises, etc., without external contributions. Finally in 1871 the most famous mathematician working in Pisa, Enrico Betti, edited the Annali della Scuola Normale, containing the best thesis of the students; this journal played a significant role in the development of the international dimension of the Italian research, due to the large reached number of interchanges between universities. Bibliography: – Capecchi Silvia (cur), Giornali del Settecento fra Granducato e Legazioni (atti del convegno di studi, Firenze, 17-19 maggio 2006), Roma, Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 2008 – Nagliati Iolanda, La matematica nei giornali toscani dell’Ottocento, in: Pepe L. (a cura di), Europa matematica e Risorgimento italiano, Bologna, Clueb, 2012, p. 199-208 – Pepe Luigi, Matematica e matematici nella Scuola Normale di Pisa 1862-1918, in Annali di storia delle università italiane, 15, 2011, p.67-80 – Tomassini Giuseppe, Gli « Annali » della classe di Scienze, in Annali di storia delle università italiane, 15, 2011, p. 213-220.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Iolanda Nagliati

Poincaré avait-il une stratégie éditoriale internationale ?
Philippe NABONNAND (Univ. de Lorraine, Archives Poincaré)

Henri Poincaré a publié dans de nombreuses revues internationales (Acta mathematica, Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo, American Journal of mathematics…) et a entretenu une correspondance plus ou moins nourrie avec plusieurs mathématiciens éditeur de journaux (G. Mittag-Leffler, G. Guccia, F. Klein, Thomas Craig, …). Nous essayerons à partir de ces éléments de discuter si Poincaré avait une stratégie éditoriale bien définie et le cas échéant de la reconstruire.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Philippe Nabonnand

Rôle de la traduction dans les circulations internationales qu’établissent les journaux savants du 18e siècle
Jeanne PEIFFER (CNRS – Centre Koyré – Paris)

En concevant le projet de traduction française des Philosophical Transactions, François de Brémond a commencé par compiler des tables – rangées par ordre chronologique, par ordre des matières et par noms d’auteurs – pour les mémoires imprimés dans les Transactions philosophiques de la Société royale de Londres  depuis 1665 jusqu’en 1735. Ces tables, parues à Paris en 1739, ont la particularité de faire apparaître en marge les reprises des mémoires par d’autres journaux. Ces marginalia permettent d’étudier (partiellement du moins) les circulations internationales des articles publiés originalement par les Transactions. A Trento, je me concentrerai sur les articles de mathématiques et leurs reprises, notamment par les Acta eruditorum, mais aussi par d’autres journaux. Je m’intéresserai à la forme de ces reprises : traductions, extraits, citations, etc., aux délais entre la publication originale et la reprise, aux modifications intervenues et à la présence de commentaires ou autres interventions des rédacteurs. Cette étude devrait permettre d’établir une circulation mathématique relativement spécialisée entre divers journaux du xviiie siècle.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Jeanne Peiffer

The international stays of studies of graduates in mathematics at the Turin university (19th century)
Chiara PIZZARELLI (Dip. Matematica Univ. Torino)

Starting in the ‘30s and ‘40s of the 19th century Sardinia Kingdom focused on the study and the imitation of more advanced European countries in order to update and modernize Science, economy and industry. Generations of students of the Turin’s Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences and of the Scuola di Applicazione per gli ingegneri were spent by their professors – first of all by the foreseeing mathematicians C.I. Giulio and Q. Sella – and sponsored by the government to attend prestigious European schools in France, Belgium, England, Germany, Saxony, Prussia, etc. Moreover they scouted factories, and scientific and educational establishments to educate themselves professionally and to gather information to be used to improve the Italian system. Among them we mention the Giulio’s students, S. Grandis, G. Sommeiller and S. Grattoni who went in Belgium (1846-47) for a railway specialization, becoming then fundamental for the Frejus tunneling; G.D. Fenolio attended the Forest Academy in Neustadt Eberswalde in Prussia (1846-47), Q. Sella and F. Giordano (1847-51) the Ecole des Mines in Paris and G.V. Schiaparelli studied at the Berlin University (1857-58) and then spent a year at the Pulkowa observatory near St. Petersburg (1859-60). The finding of Sella’s scientific diary, written during his studies in Paris (1849-50), sheds some light on how his interest for mathematical crystallography was born. Furthermore thanks to him, another generation of graduates in mathematics started to study abroad: C. Perazzi (1854-55), G. Axerio (1856-58), N. Pellati (1859-60) and G. Berruti (1860-62). Through the correspondence preserved in Quintino Sella’s archives – largely still unexplored – in my talk I try to see if and how it is possible to create a map of the locations where the Turin university graduates in mathematics went and establish when the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction started the scholarship to abroad improvement of the best national students. Sources Archives: SELLA Q., Mineralogia e Litologia. Note di Quintino Sella alla Scuola delle miniere di Parigi, 1849-50, ms, Fondazione Sella, Biella Carteggio di Quintino Sella, serie lettere ricevute, Fondazione Sella, Biella Bibliography BRIANTA D., Europa mineraria: circolazione delle élites e trasferimento tecnologico (secoli XVIII-XIX), Milano, Franco Angeli, 2007 LACAITA C., Le vie dell’innovazione: viaggi tra scienza, tecnica ed economia (secoli XVIII-XX), Milano, G. Casagrande, 2009 QUAZZA G., L’utopia di Quintino Sella: la politica della scienza, Torino, Comitato di Torino dell’Istituto per la Storia del Risorgimento Italiano, 1992 QUAZZA G., QUAZZA M., Epistolario di Quintino Sella, v. I-IV, Roma, Istituto per la storia del Risorgimento italiano, 1980-1995; v. V-IX, Roma, Archivio Guido Izzi, 1999-2005; v. VIII, Roma, Gangemi, 2010 RIGAULT G., La figura scientifica di Quintino Sella, Roma, Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1984 ROERO C.S. (ed.), Dall’Università di Torino all’Italia unita. Contributi dei docenti al Risorgimento e all’Unità, Torino, Deputazione Subalpina di Storia Patria, 2013.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Chiara Pizzarelli – 1-

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Chiara Pizzarelli – 2-

The diffusion in Italy of S. Lie’s theory on continuous transformation groups. The role of C. Segre and his followers
Maria Anna RASPANTI (Dip. Matematica Univ. Torino)

The aim of my research is to analyze the influence of the diffusion of Sophus Lie’s (1842-1899) theory of continuous transformation groups on the development of Italian mathematics, in particular in the field of algebraic geometry, thanks to Corrado Segre’s (1863-1924) scientific, didactic and promoting activity. Segre’s interest in Lie’s groups theory and in its applications (especially to geometry as a consequence of Felix Klein’s Erlangen Program) comes out from some of his writings (stored in the mathematics library, entitled to Giuseppe Peano, of the University of Turin), among which one can find the Quaderno 11, relating to his Superior Geometry course held in academic year 1897-98, entitled Lezioni sui gruppi continui di trasformazioni. Among the students who attended the course there were Mr. and Mrs. William and Grace Young, whose notes have been used for a comparison of the contents (Archives – University of Liverpool). Italian geometers (in particular, those close to Corrado Segre’s school), played an important role in the connection between Lie’s groups theory and geometry; a proof of this can be found in some of such geometers’ – among which Federigo Enriques (1871-1946) and Gino Fano (1871-1952) – writings.

Archives

Guido Castelnuovo’s Archive, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Lettere dell’Archivio di Guido Castelnuovo, web: http://operedigitali.lincei.it/Castelnuovo/Lettere_E_Quaderni/menu.htm

Giacardi L. (a cura di) I quaderni manoscritti di Corrado Segre, Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Torino, web: http://www.dm.unito.it/segre/quaderni.php

References

Bottazzini U., Conte A., Gario P. (a cura di), Riposte armonie Lettere di Federigo Enriques a Guido Castelnuovo, Torino, Bollati Boringhieri, 1996

Brigaglia A., Per una biografia scientifica di Corrado Segre, La Matematica nella Società e nella Cultura, Rivista della Unione Matematica Italiana (I), VI, Dicembre 2013, pp. 415-474

Giacardi L., Corrado Segre maestro a Torino. La nascita della scuola italiana di geometria algebrica, Annali di Storia delle Università italiane, 2001

Hawkins T., Emergence of the Theory of Lie Groups: An Essay in the History of Mathematics, 1869–1926, 2000, New York, Springer-Verlag, 2000.

Hawkins T., Lie groups and geometry: the Italian connection, Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo, Serie II, Supplemento N.36 (1994), pp. 185-206

Luciano E., Roero C.S., From Turin to Göttingen: Dialogues and Correspondence, Bollettino di Storia delle Scienze Matematiche, XXXII, 1, 2012

Rogora E., L’opera di Ugo Amaldi nel contesto della diffusione delle idee di Sophus Lie in Italia, web: http://www1.mat.uniroma1.it/people/rogora/preprint/AmaldiLie.pdf.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Maria Anna Raspanti

International relationships among mathematicians in Italian journals of 18th and 19th century. Editorial strategies toward authors and public emerged from correspondence and changes of editors
Clara Silvia ROERO (Dip. Matematica Univ. Torino)

I intend to analyze and compare the international relationships established by mathematicians in the 18th and 19th century Italian periodicals, particularly on the Giornale de’ letterati d’Italia, Raccolta di opuscoli scientifici e filologici and Nuova Raccolta (ed. A. Calogerà) and the Annali di Matematica pura e applicata from 1858 to 1900. My aim is to find elements useful to trace the editorial strategies – by journalists, directors and editors, mathematicians, and university professors, members of scientific societies – by authors (their choices about what journals could help them to let be known quickly their results, methods and theories, … And to discuss, through the correspondence, – which audience or readership the editors addressed in prevalence (students, researchers, teachers, schools and universities, academics, commissioners of competition, …)? – which kind of relations the compilers of these mathematical journals did establish with the directors of other mathematical periodicals in Italy and Europe? Particular attention will be paid to Italian translations of essays and articles of German mathematicians, and to the relationships between translators and authors. (Nel mio intervento intendo analizzare e confrontare i rapporti internazionali stabiliti dai matematici del 18° e del 19° secolo sui periodici italiani, in particolare sui Giornali de’ letterati d’Italia, sulla Raccolta e sulla Nuova Raccolta di opuscoli scientifici e filologici di A. Calogerà e sugli Annali di Matematica pura ed applicata dal 1858 al 1900. Il mio scopo è vedere le strategie editoriali – dei giornalisti o curatori dei periodici, dei matematici e professori universitari, degli accademici e membri di società scientifiche; – degli autori e delle loro scelte su quali riviste puntare per diffondere i loro risultati originali, oppure i contributi e le applicazioni dei metodi e delle teorie di altri e di discutere, attraverso l’esame delle corrispondenze, – a quale pubblico di lettori questi giornali si rivolgevano in prevalenza (studenti, ricercatori, insegnanti di scuole e di università, accademici, commissari di concorso, …); – quali relazioni stabilirono con i direttori di altre riviste in Italia e in Europa. Un’attenzione particolare sarà rivolta alle traduzioni italiane di saggi e di articoli di matematici tedeschi, ai traduttori e alle relazioni stabilite da essi o dai loro maestri con gli stranieri.)

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Silvia Roero

From the French tradition to the local publishing: the Treaties of Descriptive Geometry in Italy in the nineteenth Century.
Roberto SCOTH (Dip. Matematica Univ. Cagliari)

Il processo di diffusione della geometria descrittiva prese avvio in Italia negli anni dell’occupazione francese (1796-1813). La creazione degli stati satellite italiani e l’applicazione in essi di modelli scolastici e amministrativi ispirati a quelli realizzati in Francia furono determinanti per l’avvio di questo processo. La geometria descrittiva venne fin da subito inserita nei programmi d’insegnamento delle scuole militari (Modena, 1798; Napoli, 1799) – probabilmente anche in virtù della grande influenza esercitata da Gaspard Monge che soggiornò in Italia negli anni 1796-1798 per espletare i suoi compiti di commissario repubblicano – e si diffuse ulteriormente negli anni successivi (Napoli, Università, 1806) e a restaurazione avvenuta (Torino, Accademia Militare, 1815; Roma e Ferrara, Scuole degli ingegneri pontifici, 1817). I testi di geometria descrittiva e di applicazioni pubblicati in Italia all’inizio dell’Ottocento da autori come Antonio Bordoni, Vincenzo Flauti, Carlo Sereni e Giuseppe Tramontini costituivano all’epoca l’unica produzione editoriale dopo quella francese. In alcuni dei paesi scientificamente più evoluti, come la Germania o l’Austria, ma anche in Olanda e in Inghilterra, la pubblicazione di trattati analoghi ebbe infatti inizio solo a metà degli anni venti o nei decenni successivi. I primi testi italiani e le traduzioni in lingua italiana dei trattati francesi ebbero una longevità tale da costituire ancora agli inizi del Novecento una preziosa bibliografia di riferimento, sia per l’insegnamento universitario sia per quello secondario. A questa prima trattatistica fece seguito nella seconda metà dell’Ottocento una seconda generazione di manuali di geometria descrittiva, alcuni dei quali specificatamente destinati all’insegnamento pre-universitario dopo che a partire dal 1860 la disciplina entrò a far parte delle materie di studio delle scuole secondarie a indirizzo tecnico. Nel mio intervento mi soffermerò sui caratteri più rilevanti di tutta questa produzione editoriale, descrivendone le varie fortune ed evidenziando gli elementi di continuità e di discontinuità con la tradizione francese. Bibliografia essenziale DHOMBRES J. (eds.), L’École Normale de l’an III. Leçons de mathématiques. Édition annotée des cours de Laplace, Lagrange et Monge avec introductions et annexes, Dunod, Paris, 1992. FIOCCA A., La geometria descrittiva in Italia (1798-1838), «Bollettino di Storia delle Scienze Matematiche», XII, 2, (1992), pp. 187-249. LORIA G., Storia della Geometria descrittiva. Dalle origini sino ai giorni nostri, Milano, Hoepli, 1921. PEPE L., Insegnamenti matematici e libri elementari nella prima metà dell’Ottocento. Modelli francesi ed esperienze italiane, in L. Giacardi (eds.), Da Casati a Gentile. Momenti di storia dell’insegnamento secondario della matematica in Italia, Pubblicazioni del Centro Studi Enriques, Lugano, Lumières Internationales, 2006, pp. 65-98. SCOTH R., L’insegnamento della Geometria Descrittiva in Italia (1859-1923): da Casati a Gentile. Tesi di Dottorato di Ricerca in Storia, Filosofia e Didattica delle Scienze, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Anno Accademico 2007-2008. TATON R., L’Histoire de la Géométrie descriptive, Conférence faite au Palais de la Découverte le 12 Juin 1954, Paris, Université, 1954.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Roberto Scoth

Editer des mathématiques en France et ailleurs : libraires-imprimeurs, graveurs et bibliothécaires, 1750-1850.
Norbert Verdier  (GHDSO – Université de Paris Sud)

L’acte d¹édition et de diffusion d’un ouvrage de mathématiques requiert l’intervention de différents acteurs du monde des livres : des libraires-imprimeurs, des graveurs et des bibliothécaires. Nous commencerons par situer notre étude dans un cadre historiographique et méthodologique avant de nous focaliser longuement sur la situation française. Ainsi, nous étudierons les parcours et les contributions de certains de ces acteurs invisibles comme ceux du libraire malouin Henri-Louis Hovius (1756-1822) éditeur en 1815 d¹un Traité d¹arithmétique, offert comme un préservatif contre les routines aux personnes qui sont privées des leçons lumineuses que des professeurs donnent dans les écoles spéciales, dans les lycées, dans les collèges, etc. rédigé par un certain Bonnefin « ex-trésorier des Invalides de la marine à Saint-Malo»; de la graveuse de planches mathématiques Marguerite Thérèse de Maugein (1736-1787?) ou encore du bibliothécaire clermontois Charles Gonod (1792-1849), intermédiaire indispensable dans une partie de la production éditoriale d¹André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836). Nous terminerons cet exposé en nous interrogeant sur des éléments comparatifs avec d¹autres situations éditoriales en Allemagne, en Amérique, en Egypte, au Maroc et en Italie.

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Norbert Verdier 1

Cirm Trento – 2014 – Norbert Verdier 2

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